Appendix A: Getting Started: Installing LLVM and the Cpu0 example code

Cpu0 example code, lbdex, can be found near left bottom of this web site. Or here http://jonathan2251.github.io/lbd/lbdex.tar.gz.

For information in using cmake to build LLVM, please refer to the “Building LLVM with CMake” [1] documentation for further information.

We install two llvm directories in this chapter. One is the directory ~/llvm/debug/ which contains the clang and clang++ compiler we will use to translate the C/C++ input file into llvm IR. The other is the directory ~/llvm/test/ which contains our cpu0 backend program and clang.

Build steps

On linux, multi-threading -DLLVM_PARALLEL_COMPILE_JOBS=4, need more than 16GB memory. I create 64GB of swapfile to fix the problem of link failure [2] [3]. The iMac has no this problem.

$ cat /etc/fstab
# <file system> <mount point>   <type>  <options>       <dump>  <pass>
...
/swapfile       swap            swap    default         0       0

After setup brew install for iMac or install necessory packages. Build as https://github.com/Jonathan2251/lbd/blob/master/README.md.

Setting Up Your Mac

Brew install and setup first [4].

% /bin/bash -c "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/HEAD/install.sh)"

Then add brew command to your path as the bottom of installed message of bash above, like the following.

% echo 'eval "$(/opt/homebrew/bin/brew shellenv)"' >> /Users/cschen/.zprofile
% eval "$(/opt/homebrew/bin/brew shellenv)"

Brew install in China, use the following install.sh instead [5].

% /bin/zsh -c "$(curl -fsSL https://gitee.com/cunkai/HomebrewCN/raw/master/Homebrew.sh)"
...
% source /Users/cschen/.zprofile
% brew --version
Homebrew 3.6.7-28-g560f571
fatal: detected dubious ownership in repository at '/usr/local/Homebrew/Library/Taps/homebrew/homebrew-core'
To add an exception for this directory, call:

        git config --global --add safe.directory /usr/local/Homebrew/Library/Taps/homebrew/homebrew-core
Homebrew/homebrew-core (no Git repository)
fatal: detected dubious ownership in repository at '/usr/local/Homebrew/Library/Taps/homebrew/homebrew-cask'
To add an exception for this directory, call:

        git config --global --add safe.directory /usr/local/Homebrew/Library/Taps/homebrew/homebrew-cask

% git config --global --add safe.directory /usr/local/Homebrew/Library/Taps/homebrew/homebrew-core
% git config --global --add safe.directory /usr/local/Homebrew/Library/Taps/homebrew/homebrew-cask
% brew install cmake
...
==> Running `brew cleanup cmake`...
Disable this behaviour by setting HOMEBREW_NO_INSTALL_CLEANUP.
Hide these hints with HOMEBREW_NO_ENV_HINTS (see `man brew`).

% brew install ninja

Install Icarus Verilog tool on iMac

Install Icarus Verilog tool by command brew install icarus-verilog as follows,

% brew install icarus-verilog
==> Downloading ftp://icarus.com/pub/eda/verilog/v0.9/verilog-0.9.5.tar.gz
######################################################################## 100.0%
######################################################################## 100.0%
==> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/Cellar/icarus-verilog/0.9.5
==> make
==> make installdirs
==> make install
/usr/local/Cellar/icarus-verilog/0.9.5: 39 files, 12M, built in 55 seconds

Install other tools on iMac

Install cmake and ninja as follows,

$ brew install cmake
$ brew install ninja
$ sudo apt install graphviz
$ dot -V
dot - graphviz version 2.40.1 (20161225.0304)

Install Graphviz for display llvm IR nodes in debugging, [7].

% brew install graphviz

The Graphviz information for llvm is at section “SelectionDAG Instruction Selection Process” ” of “The LLVM Target-Independent Code Generator” here [8] and at section “Viewing graphs while debugging code” of “LLVM Programmer’s Manual” here [9].

Install binutils by command brew install binutils as follows,

// get brew by the following ruby command if you don't have installed brew
118-165-77-214:~ Jonathan$ ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/master/install)" < /dev/null 2> /dev/null
118-165-77-214:~ Jonathan$ brew install binutils
==> Downloading http://ftpmirror.gnu.org/binutils/binutils-2.22.tar.gz
######################################################################## 100.0%
==> ./configure --program-prefix=g --prefix=/usr/local/Cellar/binutils/2.22
--infodir=/usr/loca
==> make
==> make install
/usr/local/Cellar/binutils/2.22: 90 files, 19M, built in 4.7 minutes
118-165-77-214:~ Jonathan$ ls /usr/local/Cellar/binutils/2.22
COPYING     README      lib
ChangeLog     bin       share
INSTALL_RECEIPT.json    include       x86_64-apple-darwin12.2.0
118-165-77-214:binutils-2.23 Jonathan$ ls /usr/local/Cellar/binutils/2.22/bin
gaddr2line  gc++filt  gnm   gobjdump  greadelf  gstrings
gar   gelfedit  gobjcopy  granlib gsize   gstrip

Setting Up Your Linux Machine

Install Icarus Verilog tool on Linux

Download icarus verilog as follows [10],

$ git clone http://iverilog.icarus.com/

Follow the README or INSTALL file guide to install it.

Install sh autoconf.sh dependences and other dependences as follows,

$ pwd
$ ~/git/iverilog
$ sudo apt-get install autoconf automake autotools-dev curl python3 libmpc-dev \
libmpfr-dev libgmp-dev gawk build-essential bison flex texinfo gperf libtool \
patchutils bc zlib1g-dev libexpat-dev
$ sh autoconf.sh

Then install icarus as follows,

$ ./configure
// or below if you are in shared server
$ ./configure --prefix=$HOME/local
$ make
$ make check

Install other tools on Linux

Install cmake and ninja as follows,

$ pwd
$ ~/local
$ wget -b https://github.com/Kitware/CMake/releases/download/v3.23.3/cmake-3.23.3-linux-x86_64.sh
$ bash cmake-3.23.3-linux-x86_64.sh
Do you accept the license? [yn]:
y
By default the CMake will be installed in:
  "/u/jonathanchen/local/cmake-3.23.3-linux-x86_64"
Do you want to include the subdirectory cmake-3.23.3-linux-x86_64?
Saying no will install in: "/u/jonathanchen/local" [Yn]:
Y
...
Unpacking finished successfully
$ ls
bin  cmake-3.23.3-linux-x86_64 ...

$ sudo apt install ninja-build

Download Graphviz from [11] according your Linux distribution. Files compare tools Kdiff3 came from web site [6].

$ sudo apt install graphviz
$ dot -V
dot - graphviz version 2.40.1 (20161225.0304)

Set “~/.profile” as follows,

~/.profile

 ~/.profile: executed by the command interpreter for login shells.
...
# set PATH so it includes user's private bin if it exists
if [ -d "$HOME/local/bin" ] ; then
    PATH="$HOME/local/bin:$PATH"
fi
# set PATH for cmake
if [ -d "$HOME/local/cmake-3.23.3-linux-x86_64/bin" ] ; then
    PATH="$HOME/local/cmake-3.23.3-linux-x86_64/bin:$PATH"
fi
...

Toolchain

List some gnu and llvm tools as follows,

// Linux
~/git/lbd/lbdex/input$ ~/llvm/debug/build/bin/clang -fpic hello.c
~/git/lbd/lbdex/input$ man ldd
ldd - print shared object dependencies
~/git/lbd/lbdex/input$ ldd a.out
      linux-vdso.so.1 (0x00007fffd1fe5000)
      libc.so.6 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6 (0x00007f2c92a82000)
      /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 (0x00007f2c92e73000)

// MacOS
% man otool
otool-classic - object file displaying tool
  ...
  -L     Display the names and version numbers of the shared libraries that the object file uses, as well as the shared library ID if the file is a shared library.
% otool -L a.out
a.out:
      /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 1292.100.5)

// Linux
~/git/lbd/lbdex/input$ man objcopy
objcopy - copy and translate object files
  ...
  [-O bfdname|--output-target=bfdname]
~/git/lbd/lbdex/input$ objcopy -O verilog a.out a.hex
~/git/lbd/lbdex/input$ vi a.hex
@00400238
2F 6C 69 62 36 34 2F 6C 64 2D 6C 69 6E 75 78 2D
78 38 36 2D 36 34 2E 73 6F 2E 32 00
@00400254
04 00 00 00 10 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 47 4E 55 00
...